One of the many revelations exposed by this important and interesting new book is that the “DNA of Australians” was not created by either God or Darwinian natural selection, but by Captain Arthur Phillip and his superiors in the British Government in the late 1780s.
Having selected Botany Bay as the replacement for their former North American colonies and as the place to transport prisoners from Britain’s overcrowded gaols, they adopted a new Enlightenment era policy which would see New South Wales offer their convict population the opportunity to redeem themselves and become model settlers in a new land.
In choosing Arthur Phillip to help plan and implement this new policy, history shows us that the British Government chose the right man.
Michael Pembroke’s new biography of Phillip, apparently the first full review of his life ever published, should go a long way towards enabling 21st century Australians to appreciate how much we all owe Phillip and his superiors for their wisdom and foresight.
Not only did he successfully lead the biggest and longest fleet transporting convicts through largely uncharted waters ever attempted to that time, but he did so with minimal loss of life due to his policies and practices to protect all concerned from the diseases normally endemic on long sea voyages.
Pembroke’s comprehensive biography explains how Phillip’s seafaring experience starting as a 9 year old and garnered over a long and colourful career in the British Navy, gave him the capacity to undertake and successfully complete the extraordinary task most Australians would have some familiarity with. His job was to build a new secure outpost in the Pacific for the expanding British Empire.
Complementing this experience and his gift with a number of languages, was his intimacy with key politicians and sponsors within the Navy hierarchy and the relatively unusual and confidential tasks he undertook for them over many years. Hence the unusual and intriguing title of this extremely readable yet authoritative biography Arthur Phillip Sailor Mercenary Governor Spy.
Having regards to his lowly birth, it is quite remarkable that Phillip achieved so much and died a very wealthy man living out a long and comfortable retirement in the beautiful town of Bath in an era so well recorded by Jane Austen.
Pembroke’s research and the effort he has put into this book, re-creating for the reader the life and times of Arthur Phillip during his long and adventurous life, is impressive. It has enabled him to recreate for modern readers a very clear picture not only the political and historic events of the latter half of the 18th century when Britain, France and Spain were almost continually at war, but also of what it meant to be a naval officer during those tumultuous times. Fans of Patrick O’Brian’s naval series set in the same era might well appreciate this book.
This important book is a long overdue tribute to Arthur Phillip and it deserves to be read by any Australian who has wondered about the source of that part of our national DNA about giving everyone “a fair go” regardless of their origins, station in life or religion – regrettably, something our 21st century politicians seem to have forgotten.
Terry Purcell is a solicitor and was the founding director of the Law Foundation of NSW. He is a regular contributor to The Booktopia Blog.